Sunday, 27 August 2017

28 August to 3 September 1867

Tools, tucker and timber

Wednesday, 28 August
Mr Mackay is away today to the north again marking boundaries. He daily addresses the Maori; his lungs are thought to be as wonderful as his perseverance.

The body of William Paka is taken up to Ohinemuri accompanied by Te Moananui and his tribe to be mourned over by his disconsolate wife and friends.  William is to be buried on the land of his late grandfather.  

The death of William has cast a gloom over the Maori at the Thames and is a great loss to the district.  In the course of the speeches Tamaki says that all selling of land to Europeans is to cease and all leases to be ended. He is far from peaceable and is most active in fanning a rebellious spirit among several tribes. This is lamentable as William Paka was able to calm many of the more aggressive Maori.

Commissioner Mackay will await the return of Te Moananui's party to complete the leasing of the land northward for gold mining.

Despite almost two months of rain and the slow progress a feeling of satisfaction at times prevails on the diggings.   A number of miners are coming and going and the same may be said of small coasting craft. 

There are now between 400 and 500 men on the ground but it is believed men from the West Coast are needed before any results will be seen.

The schooner Mary Jane arrives from the Buller in Auckland this morning with 14 diggers for the Thames goldfields, after a fine passage of five days.

Noon The joint committees of Diggers, and Storekeepers and Traders meet – the chairman of the Digger’s committee states that it has been arranged to sink two shafts in such a way that a drive will  connect both and thus the nature of the ground will be tested. The Storekeepers committee have raised £30.

This evening the Storekeepers committee again meet at the Shortland Hotel and settle the preliminaries  of how to spend the funds collected.  Twelve men are to be put on each shaft.  Their  expenses for tools, timber and tucker will be considerable; however, the object is of great value to the province of Auckland. 

Daily Southern Cross 28 August 1867

Knock Hunt's claim into a cocked hat

Thursday, 29 August
“It is raining as hard as it can pour,”  records the dejected NZ Herald correspondent at the Thames.

Matthew Barry and party, holding a claim above the Shotover, strike a main reef there.  The quartz is solid and the gold apparently of a better quality than the Shotover’s. It is said that this quartz will, to use the style of speaking used by the best of society, “knock Hunt’s claim into a cocked hat.”

Between the Kuranui and the Moanataiari creeks there are about a dozen claims now in operation.  From Moanataiari to the Karaka the country is reserved.

There is panic at the Shotover claim.  The reef, being on the very boundary of the field proclaimed, has been of great interest to the Maori.  Hearing of the richness of the stone they suddenly state that the Shotover party marked off beyond the proclaimed goldfield. The party are fearful of losing the claim and a dozen men are hastily got together to save what gold they can.  The reef, as yet, is unworked.  Up the face of the rock the leaders can be seen to a height of 12ft and the breadth about 2in, each running parallel about two feet apart.  The men set to work at the face of the rock using what tools they have, picking out an adit some 30 inches wide so as to take both leaders and the non auriferous stone between the two.  The Maori eventually abandon their demands and leave the diggers in undisturbed possession. 

Harvest Home for the Thames with 10 passengers. 
Snowflake for the Thames with 4,000 ft timber, ½ ton flour, 2 gallons rum, 2 pkgs drapery, 2 bags sugar, sundries, 6 passengers.

John Beale, arriving at the landing place, makes his way through scores of bell tents to Captain Butt’s hotel.  He is lucky in obtaining the only vacant stretcher in the attic, which is reached by a ladder. He finds about a dozen diggers, fast asleep. Most of them are snoring heavily.  He falls asleep during a temporary lull in the noise but is manhandled awake by a rough inebriated digger who claims the stretcher as his own.  John Butt soon puts him to rights.   The bar below is as usual thronged with diggers – the universal and popular beverage being porter and sugar.   Change is generally generously returned to the serving barmaid.

DSC 29 August 1867

Friday, 30 August
The Enterprise arrives at Auckland bringing the first installment, 16 bags of quartz, from the Shotover.  The stone was not taken carefully from the reef, the leaders and casings being knocked down hurriedly and mixed together. Much of the stone contained in the bags is not auriferous at all.  This sample will be crushed and its value tested.  The bags containing the specimens are lodged tonight for safety at the Police Office. 

Dee for the Thames with 2,000ft timber, 12,000 shingles, 6 sash frames, 3 doors, 12 casks rum, 3 kegs spirits, 1 hhd ale, 1 case moselle, 1 case sundries, 2 kegs nails, 2 passengers. 
Cornstalk for the Thames with sundries and 15 passengers.

William Coppell and William Sutton, prospectors from the British Claim, arrive in Auckland and place advertisements in the Daily Southern Cross and New Zealand Herald to raise funds to help bottom the shaft.

DSC 1 September 1867

Support for the British claim

Saturday, 31 August
Support begins to grow for the beleaguered British Claim.  J Gibbons, sawmiller, sends  a note to the Daily Southern Cross office promising to deliver to the men of the claim  250ft of sawn timber towards the slabbing.

George Holland, manager of the British Claim, and Walter Deans, assistant manager, report to the Auckland subscribers of the claim that there are 14 men employed, a cookhouse 18 x 14 has been erected, timber has been cut for logging up the shaft, a race has been cut into the creek to carry away water and a shaft named ‘Nonesuch’ has been sunk to a depth of 5ft. 

Captain Butt has supplied 483 feet timber for slabbing and 24 claims have been pegged off according to the instructions of Mr Mackay.  Two prospecting claims are held over to be pegged off at a future time.

Rangatira for the Thames with 1,500 bricks, 9 bushels lime, 4 cases spirits, 4 passengers.

By now, at Shortland Town,  56 business allotments have been taken up and 129 miner’s rights issued.  The near incessant rain has left the roads muddy bogs laid with ti tree and fern. Shortland Town can boast of about 20 weather-boarded houses.

Men known in the southern goldfields as the 'right sort' have begun to arrive.  They don’t remain in the township looking around them, but start right away to prospect with the intention of settling in and giving the ground a trial.  Diggers are also leaving Coromandel for the Thames to try their luck.

On the Karaka and creeks to the north work is progressing steadily.  There are four claims now on the block of high land situated between Kuranui and Moanataiari creeks, producing gold in the stone.  It is hoped that this  portion of the Karaka field alone, when gold is found in payable quantity and the extent of leaders known, will give employment to more men than it was estimated would find wages at the outset of the rush.  At present there are about 75 men quartz reefing. 

The gods will be angry with them

Sunday, 1 September
Divine service is held at the Thames – Reverend Mr Grace officiates.

At Ohinemuri there is a Maori meeting to discuss opening more land for mining which Taipari, from the Thames, and  Te Moananui attend. Te Moananui and his people  bring some 2 ½ tons flour, 1 ton biscuit, ½ ton sugar and around 100 pigs for the two day gathering.   

The decision is reached that the Upper Thames auriferous lands should not be opened to the diggers, and that Hikutaia should not be the boundary.  If diggers are found prospecting on these native lands there are to be sent quietly back to Hauraki or the Ngati Maru lands.  

Te Moananui agrees to this district being shut up from the pakehas and he also hands over all his lands contained in the prohibited area to Te Hira, for him to do what he thinks fit with.  

Te Hira is a chief in the Ngati Tamatera tribe, of the Upper Waihou and Ohinemuri country. A large portion of the Ngati Tametera are friendly,  but there is a substantial section that are ferociously antagonistic to the threatened European inundation.  Te Hira himself is difficult and stubborn.

Te Hira says the reason they cannot give their consent to the Upper Ohinemuri lands being opened to diggers is that Te Witi and John, two Taranaki prophets, have written to the Maori King to put a stop to selling or leasing the lands, for if the Maori do so the gods will be angry with them, and will cause wrong to spring up amongst them.  Ropata says that the talk about the gold being opened up to Europeans is not a new talk.   What is the use of their remaining poor while they have such gold bearing land to lease to the Europeans?  Taipari says he will try and open the district to diggers.

DSC 2 September 1867

Monday, 2 September
Black Prince, a magnificent prize bullock, is put on exhibition at Buckland’s Bazaar, Auckland, by Mr Messenger, the People’s Butcher. The admission fee of sixpence collected over the next few days is promised to go towards the expenses of the British claim.  The beast is to be slaughtered on Friday.

Pessimism over the Thames goldfield continues.  The Auckland Stock and Sharemarket monthly report notes that in gold mining shares there is nothing doing.  The discoveries at the Thames have created no demand.  No new companies have been formed.  The Thames appears to offer no inducements of a more favourable character than Coromandel.  Trade is extremely dull in Auckland.  The weather has been very severe and the arrangements with the Maori for opening more ground at the Thames have been complicated and tedious. Shipping, though, has exhibited a considerable amount of briskness.  The Enterprise has made constant trips to the Thames goldfield, conveying a large number of passengers to and fro and taking down cargo.  About 15 small vessels have likewise found constant employment between Auckland and the Thames. Small craft return to Auckland, some in ballast, but many with passengers, gum, firewood, pork and produce.

Diamond for the Thames with stores and 500ft sawn timber
Severn for the Thames with 3,000ft timber, 12 passengers


Dudley Eyre, surveyor, is at work this afternoon near the beach at the landing place, Shortland Town.  He hears a great disturbance and goes to see what it is about.  He sees two Maori men holding a Maori woman and one of them is hitting her.   Europeans gather round crying “Shame!”

While the Maoris beat her, a blacksmith named Louis Lewis is pushed away several times.  Wirmeu Heremia is standing keeping off the Europeans.

Thomas Sandes,  assistant surveyor, has also been on the beach and is now standing close to Lewis. He sees Wiremu punch Lewis twice but Lewis does not react, he stands with his hands in his pockets. 

The woman is taken away in a canoe.

Minutes later Lewis approaches Wiremu saying if he put his hands on him again he’ll hit him.  Wiremu replies “You like to fight?”

Constable John Wallace, who has witnessed a great deal of the disturbance, sees Wiremu in the act of pulling off his shirt.  Constable Wallace runs forward to prevent this just as Lewis takes off his waistcoat, rushes past Constable Wallace and strikes Wiremu in the face.

Meke Heremia then rushes at Lewis, catches him by the hair and hits him two or three times. 

Almost all the Europeans and Maori present now get into the melee and several of them roll into the water. Meke has hold of Lewis and drags him towards the water as the Europeans try to rescue him.

Wiremu and Meke seize Lewis by the legs and drag him into the creek where they pull him under two or three times.  A Maori boy of about 14 jumps in, catches Lewis by the hair and holds his head under water.

James Mackay, in the raupo whare which serves as the courthouse, lock up and temporary sleeping quarters for tentless miners,  is busy writing when a policeman rushes in exclaiming "Mr Mackay, come quickly, the Maoris have got a white man in the creek and are drowning him!"  Mackay runs to the creek and sees Wiremu and Meke mercilessly ducking Lewis under each time he manages to raise his head above the surface.  Lewis is very much exhausted. 

Mackay calls out to Wiremu and Meke and they release Lewis who, with difficulty, swims ashore.

He orders the two Maoris to come also, but they swim to the mangroves on the opposite side of the creek and start jeering at Mackay and the two  policemen. 

Mackay climbs into a canoe and starts paddling towards them.  They call out "All right Mackay  - we come." 

Mackay hands Lewis to the police and on Wiremu and Meke coming out of the water, he collars them and they all march up to the courthouse whare. 

Wiremu and Meke  are attached to a chain stapled round the center post of the whare - one end of a handcuff is attached to a wrist and the other to a ring at the end of the chain.  This is how all prisoners are restrained in the courthouse whare "lock up."  Wiremu and Meke lay down and spend the night surrounded by miners.

This scuffle will have a significant effect on the Thames goldfields.

A meeting of 33 carpenters is held this evening at the Shortland Hotel where they demand 10 shillings a day, in consequence of a contract being given to finish the roof of the house being built for Mr Mulligan, which would have given wages at 8s per day.  There are more carpenters at the Thames now than can find employment.

Tuesday, 3 September
Charles Mitchell and Mr Boyd are infuriated by William Coppell and William Sutton of the British claim placing advertisements soliciting for funds in the newspapers.  They run an advertisement of their own warning the public not to give money or goods to Coppell or Sutton as they have no authority to collect them.  The Daily Southern Cross adds its disapproval saying “it is to be regretted that they have deceived the public, as a really serviceable undertaking may suffer in consequence.” 

The NZ Herald fumes “if Messrs Sutton and Coppell have obtained one shilling’s worth of goods as the representatives of the joint committee . . . then they are doing something excessively like a swindle and they are guilty of obtaining money under false pretences.  Let it be plainly understood that these men have no right whatever to do what they have done.”

NZH 3 September 1867

Captain Frederick Hutton, an English scientist with an academic career in geology and biology, has arrived at the Thames.  He is to prepare a report on the goldfield for Dr James Hector, Colonial Geologist.

Sydney for the Thames with timber and passengers. 
Willie Winkie for the Thames with sundries and passengers.

"Let me have Waiotahi"

At the Resident Magistrates Court, Shortland, before James Mackay, Allan Baillie and Chief Taipari, Louis Lewis, a blacksmith, and Meke and Wiremu Heremia, are all charged with the previous day having disturbed the public peace.   Lewis and Meke plead not guilty.  Wiremu pleads guilty and is taken in charge of a Maori constable.

Evidence is heard from Constable Wallace, Dudley Eyre, Thomas Sandes,  Louis Lewis and Meke Heremia.  Meke says Lewis had first struck him in the face and the mark of the blow was still there.  Lewis had also pulled a handkerchief from Wiremu’s neck and had struck Meke in the face - he had wanted to ward off the blow, but Lewis made a second blow and hit him in the chest.  All the Europeans laid hold of Meke and he fell in the water. 

The court is cleared, the Bench deliberates and then the doors are thrown open. Mr Mackay says the court has very carefully considered the case and has come to the conclusion that all three parties are guilty of common assault. It is quite clear that Lewis had allowed from three to ten minutes to elapse between the time the woman was being beaten and the commencement of the fight.  It did not appear that Lewis was acting in defence of the woman.  It is quite clear also that Lewis had struck Wiremu before Meke struck him and dragged him into the water. 

Wiremu is fined £3 or in default, one month’s imprisonment with hard labour.  Lewis receives the same sentence and Meke is fined £5, or in default two month’s imprisonment with hard labour.   Lewis' fine is promptly paid. 

Mr Mackay cautions all European’s not to interfere in Maori quarrels.  Had a tomahawk been used, a life might have been lost and the footing the Europeans have now obtained would be cancelled.  He tells the Maori that if the woman who was so roughly treated would like to make a complaint he will punish those who had attacked her.

Wiremu and Meke Heremia have no money and cannot pay the fines. They are the son and nephew of Chief  Aperahama te Reiroa, who comes begging to solicit their release.  This is refused unless the fines are paid.

Aperahama then offers to give up Waiohanga (known as Stoney Point) north of Paeroa, for goldmining.

It suddenly occurs to Mackay the Aperahama te Reiroa is the principal obstructive in allowing miners to go on the land between Waio-karaka and the Moanataiari stream - the forbidden Waiotahi.

Mackay says "Let me have Waiotahi.  I will give you £10 on account of miners rights fees and you can hand it to Constable Wallace who will release the prisoners."

The old chief bursts out in a profuse perspiration and mops his face for some time with a handkerchief.  He then says "Mackay, you are a very hard man.  Let them go, never mind Waiotahi."

Mackay shows him the warrants that have been made out and Aperahama gives his reluctant consent. Mackay takes Aperahama's receipt for £10 on account of the miners rights fee.  Aperahama hands the cash to the constable and the young men are set free. 

The Maoris all set off in haste towards their settlement and as Mackay expects that Riwai and other opponents to giving the land for mining will soon make an appearance, he starts one surveyor at the Karaka stream and another at Moanataiari to cut the line along the base of the hills, that being the boundary set by himself and Aperahama.  The line marks an area to be left as a cultivation reserve for the Maori. 

Although it is pouring with rain, within half an hour Mr Mackay has the surveyors marking out the ground which is pegged out as they go.

The miners have been warned to be in readiness.

The forbidden land of the Waiotahi, known to be of considerable value and constantly trespassed on by European’s, is now open for gold mining. It is rushed by miners.   About 150 claims are marked out.  The extent of the land negotiated for is at least 400 square miles, but the field actually opened for mining is about ten miles in length with an average width of about 60 square miles.

About 40 Maori arrive and find the miners already in possession.  Protest is futile.

The Enterprise arrives at the Thames tonight in a most unusual style – she comes up to the landing place without once sticking in the mud. She also has a new captain – Thomas Seon.  He is well known for his punctuality and ability and there is no doubt he will become a general favourite on the line.


Eyre Street and Sandes Street, Thames,  are probably named after Dudley Eyre and Thomas Sandes, surveyors.
Robert Dudley Eyre arrived in NZ on the ship Empress in May 1865 and was the first government surveyor on the Thames goldfield.  

Thomas Goodman Sandes  was born in Country Cork, Ireland,  and trained as an engineer and surveyor.  He came to NZ in 1863 and served during the Waikato campaign.  When the regiment disbanded he came to the Thames goldfield.

Of the controversial circumstances regarding the opening of the Waiotahi - James Mackay later said “ I have been circumspect in reporting this proceeding as there were many misrepresentations about it at the time.”  These days it is seen as highly coercive.

Thirty four years after the event James Mackay disingenuously stated the cause of the disturbance was that Lewis had bought a dog from one of the Maori and two others claimed it and tried to take it from him, so he assaulted them.


Papers Past 

The Hauraki Report Volume One
The Crown, the Treaty and the Hauraki tribes 1800 -1885 – Hauraki Maori Trust Board
This is my place – Hauraki contested – Paul Monin
The pioneer land surveyors of NZ - C A Lawn- F.N.Z.I.S.
Charles Royal and Jenny Kaka-Scott, 'Māori foods – kai Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 23 August 2017)

© Meghan Hawkes / First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017

Please credit Meghan Hawkes/ First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017 when re-using information from this blog.

Sunday, 20 August 2017

21 August to 27 August 1867

A damper upon the diggings

Wednesday, 21 August
It is becoming clear that the Thames goldfield may not be alluvial and the majority of miners now on the field are prospecting on the ranges for auriferous quartz reefs every piece of stone cropping out of the surface is chipped and in more than one instance gold is seen.

 The government prospectors have practically abandoned their sluicing claim, over which a race was cut and where they were stripping the banks, leaving it to some friends. 

Along the whole line of the Karaka Creek there is only one claim – the British – really at work, and as they have no night shift, they lose a couple of hours of the best of the day each morning in bailing out the accumulation of water during the night. In other claims there is some 20 to 25 feet of water.  This is almost entirely owing to the men going after every new rush and being constantly in the township looking for news.

There are various rumours afloat of well-defined reefs having been discovered in equal richness to the Shotover.   Samples of quartz are shown in town different from that already known to exist, but as they have been taken out of the locality to the north of the present boundary they are be kept secret until Mr MacKay declares the extension of the line drawn around the Karaka goldfield.

 Quartz reefing is not able to be done to any great extent without machinery.  There are now about 400 men on the diggings, of which about 50 are experienced miners.

Shortland Town is advancing, almost every trade is represented, and two substantial buildings are on the ground to  which publican’s licenses will be given.  There is also a restaurant close to the landing place.  Stores are plentiful; and were there a little more money about, and more work done on the creeks, there would be no grumbling.

The Enterprise and the Clyde for the Thames with full cargoes of sawn timber, tools and stores and about 70 passengers.

Kasper for the Thames with sundry merchandise and several passengers.

Grey River Argus, 22 August 1867

Whares on fire

Thursday, 22 August
The Enterprise, which arrived late last night, steams for Auckland this morning but touches the sandflat at the south side of the river and is stuck fast.

The Maori village at Kauaeranga is fast disappearing as the town advances.  Whares are set on fire.  Every allotment in the township is now secured and this morning Dudley Eyre, the government surveyor, extends a street across the Hape Creek towards the Mission House.  Allotments have been in great demand since the discovery of Murphy’s reef.

“Talk of going home to learn the news!” writes the NZ Herald correspondent from Shortland Town after reading rival papers.  ”Why you quite startle us here with the news you are sending down of wonderful reefs and great discoveries . . .”

Severn for the Thames – 20 passengers, Forth – 5 passengers, Diamond – 18 passengers, Helen – 18 passengers, Cornstalk – 9 passengers, Rangatira - 15 passengers, Avon – 10 passengers.

Around noon the fine morning gives way to torrents of rain, again.

This evening the Enterprise gets free of the sand flat.

7pm  At the Maori hostelry in Mechanics Bay, Auckland, a young  chief Wi (William) Paka, grandson of Taraia, dies. William is much respected by both European and Maori. He possessed much intelligence and sense and his death is a serious loss to the district.  His influence and good counsel have kept in check many of the violent and badly disposed Maori.   He has been suffering for several days from severe constant bleeding of the nose and succumbs to exhaustion caused by loss of blood. His remains are placed in a coffin and are taken to the cutter Cornstalk for return to the Thames.

Looking east from Constitution Hill across Mechanics Bay, showing the Maori Hostelry (right foreground), Stanley Street (centre to right), Swan Hotel (centre), The Strand (Gittos Street, now Parnell Rise), and Parnell Road (left to right background)
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, 3-Album-45-6' 

DSC 23 August 1867

Friday, 23 August
Commissioner Mackay, accompanied by Te Moananui, Kitahi and other Maori, goes to  the northern boundary of the land granted to the European’s for the purpose of prospecting for gold.  Starting from the Hape Creek along the shore of the gulf, the first block of land through which the Waiotahi runs is left to be disposed of when Mr Mackay returns. Another small lot to the north of Kuranui is also reserved.  These two pieces of land will be given over in a few days.  Further up the coast about 160 acres are reserved for Maori cultivation.  From Tararu to Point extending four miles along the shore is not disputed.  Between Apiki and the Otahe stream, two miles in advance, the Maori have some discussion which ends in Mr MacKay stating that he will demand his right to this part of the country.  From Otake to the Puru the land is open -  it has been tapu.  The southern boundary will be proclaimed in a few days.

Dissatisfaction and uneasiness over the goldfield simmers.  A group of some 50 men talk among themselves tonight and it is proposed to call a proper meeting of diggers to address the subject of the Kauaeranga district not being payable.

Forth for the Thames – 10 gallons rum, 5 gallons whiskey, 2 cases gin, 2 cases wine, 10 casks beer, 3 dozen cordials, ½ ton hay, 2 bars iron, 2,000 ft timber, 20 pkgs stores. Severn for the Thames – 100 ft timber, 20 passengers. Rangatira – 2,000 bricks, 1 ton flour, 3 bags potatoes, 5 gallons yeast, 5 passengers.

A false impression has gone abroad

Saturday, 24 August
 A number of men assemble having heard that Samuel Alexander is to address them on the subject of the field being a duffer.  Certain names connected with the earlier prospecting party are mentioned as having induced the men to come to the Thames by exaggeration.  The audience listens to Mr Alexander, but his claims are rejected by Mr Mitchell.   There is a danger of men forming the wrong opinion of the place and going away without giving it a fair trial.  Mr Alexander is very argumentative and later in the day denies all participation in the meeting although he was the principal speaker.   A false impression seems to have gone abroad that someone or other means to put a damper upon the Thames diggings for a sinister purpose.

The Grey River Argus strikes out at a section of the Auckland press for attempting to get up a rush to the ‘alleged’ new goldfield at the Thames.  It points to the history of the Coromandel diggings –  a tremendous hubbub was made in Auckland about the Coromandel diggings, which were then rushed for a second time.  Hundreds of deluded men left Otago and elsewhere on the strength of the accounts published in Auckland papers.  Companies were formed and a large amount of capital invested in them, a township was sold at fabulous prices and what was the result?  No payable goldfield could be established, the miners left, the companies nearly all of them collapsed most disastrously, and all that remains is a score or two of wages men, working for the only company that managed to keep afloat.  “We can understand the anxiety of the papers to induce a revival of the commercial prosperity of Auckland but we protest most emphatically against the attempts that are being made to victimise unsuspecting diggers.”

Daniel Tookey discovers a quartz leader,  containing gold of a brighter colour than that in the Shotover stone,  on his claim at the foot of the Moanataiari reef.   It is to the left or northern side of the Moanataiari Creek and may possibly be a continuation of the Kuranui Reef.  

The Enterprise steams in this evening, straight onto a mud flat where she remains stuck.  The light which should be displayed on the outer buoy has not been placed there. 

Sunday, August 25
Passengers from the Enterprise scramble up to their waists in water to get ashore. There is great annoyance that these misadventures occur so often.    Often the method of landing is ship’s boats which also get stuck in the mud; passengers having to get out and push.  The process of landing can sometimes take an hour.  On getting ashore at the mouth of the Kauaeranga creek mud and slush up to the ankles has to be negotiated.

NZH 26 August 1867

DSC 26 August 1867

North towards Coromandel is thrown open

Monday, 26 August
A very large extent of the country is thrown open to the miners.  The whole country north towards Coromandel is open, but until Thursday is not actually in possession of the miners.  A good number of men leave the Thames to prospect there. 

The available land is intersected by numerous streams which are similar to the Karaka, having reef gold distribution through the banks.  They do not run so precipitous as the Karaka, and for a considerable distance inland the banks are level.  There is a landing place at the Puru for boats drawing three feet of water but only at high tide.  Until the passage is known, intending prospectors for the new ground are advised to land at Kauaeranga.   The streams are fordable and the points at high water are avoided by Maori tracks a short way inland.  All along the coast there are many places met with geological interest.  There is a tapu which must not be infringed on.

The Shortland Hotel, kept by Captain Butt opens today.   It is a very excellent weatherboard building situated upon the corner of the main street, and was originally intended as a house for  Chief  Taipari (Willoughby Shortland),   hence the name of the hotel.  It will afford comfortable quarters to visitors from Auckland.  Outside the hotel is a ‘lamp post’ - a colossal Maori image taken from an old fighting pa.    

Two more licences are applied for – one for Diggers Rest Hotel to be kept by Mr Mulligan, who has a number of carpenters building a commodious house,   and the other by William Nicholls who has converted his store close to the landing place  into the Duke of Edinburgh Hotel.

Sydney for the Thames with stores and 10 passengers.

Buildings are going up every day and the sound of hammering is heard until a late hour in the night.  The sounds of blacksmiths tools and anvils ring out across the settlement.

The Clyde brings nine passengers back to Auckland  most of whom state that they have returned because they see no prospect of doing well at the Thames.  The men are not of the 'loafing' class and have returned disappointed.

Men are now cautioned against leaving constant or partial employment for the Thames.  There have been specimens enough seen from there but in reality little or no gold has been seen.  None of the holes have been bottomed.  There doesn’t seem to be a lot of alluvial digging in the vicinity.  The Shotover party discovered very rich quartz leaders but nothing has been done towards working the claim. 

 There is a scarcity of the genuine miner at the Thames.  As yet, there are still not more than 50 experienced miners on the ground.   Amateur miners consist of lawyers, surveyors, navy and army officers and bank and warehouse employees excitedly  washing dirt in tin dishes.

The NZ Herald is shown some very fine views of the Thames goldfield, photographed by Mr R H Bartlett, who has been at the diggings for some weeks.  They comprise views of the Shotover reef, Karaka Flat, the Kauaeranga township and several of the claims.  The photos are very beautifully executed; the groups of men engaged in mining, sluicing etc are very distinctly brought out.  The views are exhibited in Mr Bartlett’s establishment today.
  Bottoming the British

Tuesday 27 August
Joe Smallman and Walter Deans have been bailing the shaft of the British Claim all night long and just as the day shift of Abel Fletcher, Sutton and others come on a boulder falls from the side and it begins to cave in.  The rattled men make a careful examination.  The shaft is down 37ft but unless it can be slabbed (timbered) it is impossible to work it any further.  Some of the men head into Shortland Town to get assistance, but are unsuccessful.  On their return they toss the stuff back down the shaft in despair.   But some traders in the township put their heads together as to what is to be done and decide to call a public meeting this evening at the new Shortland Hotel.

The quartz from Tookey’s claim on the Moanataiari is inspected by men in Shortland Town - gold is studded through it and it looks promising, but there are many new arrivals dissatisfied with the country.  These grumblers are looked upon with disdain - they have not gone to work in the way that will produce wages.  A tin dish cannot test what the ground is made of.

Bessy for the Thames with 2,000ft timber, 13 passengers. Severn for the Thames with timber, sundries, 20 passengers.

This evening the crier is sent round with the bell of the People’s Butcher summoning all and sundry to the public meeting at the Shortland Hotel.

8pm There is a very crowded attendance of diggers and storekeeper’s filling the two largest rooms in the hotel and there are also men gathered outside straining to hear.  Captain Butt is appointed chairman.  It is acknowledged that the men of the British claim have done their utmost to bottom their shaft, but they cannot go on with safety unless the sides are timbered. The meeting is to ascertain what assistance is required towards sinking two new shafts on the Karaka Flat, one at the spur of Murphy’s Reef, and slabbing the British claim.   Although the British claim is now nearly 40 feet down, with no indication of bedrock, even if it were bottomed and proved a duffer, that is no reason to think that there is no alluvial gold in other parts of the flat.  Fine gold  can be found at this depth  -  were it not for this, and the prestige of being the only party on the field endeavouring to get to the bottom, the men of the British  would not be blamed were they to give up as several others have done.

There are loud cries that the men outside cannot hear and the meeting is adjourned to the open air – where Captain Butt climbs his ‘lamp post’ to continue addressing the meeting.

During this day Mr Mackay, Mr Baillie, Chief Taipari, Mr Eyre and others have promised to contribute towards a fund for pushing the work and it is decided that the best way would be at once to appoint a committee.  Two committee’s are actually selected – one for storekeepers and traders, numbering seven, and the other for diggers, numbering 12.  The meeting separates and the committee’s confer.    The Diggers Committee, headed by Mr J C Boyd, an experienced Australian miner, will proceed to view the ground tomorrow morning then both committees will meet at noon.  The Storekeepers and Trader’s Committee, headed by Charles Mitchell, will in the meantime solicit funds to carry on the work.   George Holland and Walter Deans are appointed to manage the working of the troubled British Claim on which so many hopes rest. 


Papers Past
Hauraki Report Volume 1

© Meghan Hawkes / First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017

Please credit Meghan Hawkes/ First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017 when re-using information from this blog.

Sunday, 13 August 2017

14 August to 20 August 1867

Looking north from below the Long Drive Claim, showing a miners camp at the mouth of the Kuranui Creek (centre), the path from Thames (Shortland) (left) along Kuranui Bay (left), the bluff leading up to Pukehinau Ridge (right), and Tararu Flat (left centre, distance). The Shotover  claim is approximately 150 metres to the right of the camp.

'Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, 589-317
Ears cropped and face smashed

Wednesday 14 August
4am The Enterprise comes into Kauaeranga and  gets stuck on a mudbank, but as the mud is very soft, no harm is done.   Passengers breakfast on slices of salt beef and glasses of beer before  wading and paddling across the mud flats into Shortland Town.

Thomas Grundy, who has come to the Thames this week, makes one of his first outings a visit to the Shotover claim, but the men there are making sure any person passing gives the workings a wide berth and they have to walk round the cliff at the back of the find.  William Hunt is walking backwards and forwards displaying a revolver.

A registration of absence is granted for the Shotover giving  the claim  protection of 14 days to give the party time to obtain tools and appliances from Auckland. 

Work again commences on the flat.  At an old hole sunk by Walter Williamson and Joseph Smallman two years ago a race has been constructed and the rubble sent up to the surface is put  through a sluice box.  Walter also works out a reef on the Waiotahi and marks their claims on it. 

On the Karaka Creek alluvial miners are hard at work.  At the lower end the British claim has sunk a shaft.  From there upwards the creek is occupied by sluicers, some taking their stuff from the surface, some from the bed of the creek itself.  

Above them is  a party  of Maoris, said to be getting 1 dwt to the load, and next to them is the ground worked some time since by the original government prospectors and also by the men on the ground two years ago.  

Further up is the claim Messers Spencer, Carver and Keetley.  They are not experienced miners yet judging  from their prospecting dish, which contains the results of some hours of labour -  specks of gold which can picked out on the point of a knife.  

The last party up the creek, numbering six, work in a much more competent manner than those below them. They have a very good sluice box, and are making tucker. 

The weather turns into a whole day of furious wind and rain.  Tents are blown down but none carried away.  The Maori meeting regarding the opening of more land for prospecting is again postponed.  The boisterous weather causes an almost total suspension of shipping.   

Shortland Town is going ahead with great rapidity and wooden buildings are now the order of the day today – while yesterday canvas was quite good enough.  Blasting powder, driving tools and licence fees are in demand.  

Loafers though are outnumbering workers.  Many who have come down cannot, or will not, dig.  They walk about in two’s or three’s, and often singly.   As they do not see gold flashed about in large quantities they declare with much indignation that they have been deceived, and are loud in their praises of their own capabilities and of what they have done.  One individual, dressed as a digger in a costume picturesque in the extreme, denounces the whole place, yet not half a mile from him other men are to be found quite satisfied.  This is essentially a diggings on which a hard working man out of employment elsewhere can obtain a livelihood.

But there is frustration and discontent brewing on the diggings.  A meeting is held to declare the field a duffer and not a payable goldfield.   The NZ Herald correspondent protests that for the first time in his life, after 15 years on goldfields, he is threatened with having his “ears cropped” or his “face smashed.”     The resolution is not passed – in fact, it was not really proposed, for no one would admit to  the field being a duffer  when it came to the pinch.  The meeting disperses and does not come to any conclusion. 

The NZ Herald correspondent writes “I do not think this meeting was fairly called and the person calling it ought to have come prepared to state why he had called it . . . My reply to the threat was a very plain one.  Any single man I will take my chance with.  If more than one – for they threatened to “double bank” me – why, then I shall try to put a hole in some of them that a tailor wont mend.” 

There is great pessimism because alluvial diggings have not been discovered.   The weather has been wet, usually wet even for the winter months.   There have never been more than 50 practical miners on the ground since the time it first opened.  Only one or two claims at most are being systematically worked upon.  Just getting to the goldfield is fraught.  Vessels leaving from the other colonies and provinces will need to come either direct to Auckland or to Manukau.  They will not go direct to the Thames for they would find themselves in almost as bad a plight with the nor-easter blowing as if they were on the Hokitika bar.  Large vessels cannot come within some distance of the Kauaeranga and if caught in the Firth by a north or north easterly wind will  be blown high and dry on the mud banks among which the channel winds.  

At Auckland the NZ Herald has received its correspondent’s report along with 3 ½ lbs of broken quartz from the Shotover.  The correspondent writes in a state of great uncertainty as to whether the quartz discovered is auriferous. The staff at the NZ Herald are doubtful - the gold has a very brassy appearance.  They decide to have it assayed by Mr Beck, jeweller, but before it gets to him several people ask for specimens and the sample is reduced to exactly 2 lbs.  Once assayed the result is a button of gold weighing 5dwts 10 grains.  The result is considered a fair average.  The button is on view at the Herald office today from 2pm to nearly 8pm and is seen by hundreds of people.  Mr Beck then takes it home for further testing.  He is of the opinion that it is 15 carat gold.

First case tried upon the goldfield 

Thursday 15 August - Early morning
 Honi Mahurangi has come from Kirikiri to gather fish at the Karaka Creek.  He hears a dog worrying a pig and with some friends heads towards the creek where they see two white men – one is holding a pig and the other is striking it with an axe.  Honi accosts the men at their tent and accuses them of stealing the pig and asks for £2 compensation. The men deny it touching the pig.  The pig belongs to Hamoana and Pateona and is a pregnant tame sow, one of the several domesticated pigs the Maori have running on the Karaka. Constable Bond of the Armed Police Force examines the tent of Young and Craig’s party and finds  a small axe hanging up with blood on it.

The matter is dealt with promptly at the Resident Magistrates Court whare before James Mackay, where David Young and Charles Craig are charged with stealing and taking away one sow pig, the property of the Maori.  There is a crowded attendance at this first case tried upon the goldfield.  There is some trouble and delay in finding an interpreter – many are unwilling to take any part in the affair of convicting a fellow digger. Eventually William Perrier is sworn as interpreter.

 Young and Craig are two respectable looking men and much anxiety is felt for their fate.  The pig is brought into court and examined by Honi who recognises it by the mark on its ears.  Miners testify for Young and Craig.  Peter Anderson had gone with Young that morning for firewood between 7 and 8am.  Young had not gone out before then and he saw no axe with him when he did go out.  He saw no Maoris either as he came and went with firewood.  After breakfast he saw the Maoris come to the tent and accuse Craig of killing the pig.  He was not with Young the whole time.  

William Bendel is a carpenter, working on the same claim as Young and Craig.  He did not see either of them take an axe out that morning.  Young brought back some dry firewood when he returned after about 20 minutes.   He said he had used the axe to chop up some meat.   Court is adjourned.

Several specimens of quartz obtained from the Kuranui Reef are left at the Daily Southern Cross office in Auckland.  They are examined with great interest by a considerable number of people.   The samples are from the claim of Matthew Barry, who has pegged out next to the Shotover.  Barry is well satisfied with the appearance of the ground he has chosen.  Some of the specimen’s he brings up have been tested by fire at Karaka, while others are as taken from the reef.

The Daily Southern Cross office, Auckland
Sir George Grey Special Collections 4-351 

Severn for the Thames 1 case brandy, 400ft timber, 20 passengers

Sydney for the Thames cargo and passengers

Pet for the Thames cargo and 12 passengers

Spey for the Thames cargo and 14 passengers

A small boat, belonging to Mr Rawdon, leaves Freeman’s Bay, Auckland, with stores, tools and passengers.

Charles Mitchell starts a business of a general store at the port of entry at Shortland Town.  He notifies that any letters addressed to parties on the diggings, entrusted to him, will be carefully delivered.  This is a great advantage to the diggers until a regular post office is established.

Young and Craig are sentenced to one month’s imprisonment each with hard labour.  Opinion is divided – some feel great sympathy for the men, but others feel they have been very properly sentenced - no man could have mistaken the tame pig for a wild one.   There should be no sympathy for such men.  There is an element of rowdyism on the goldfield. Maoris and chiefs walking up to miners and making civil inquiries have been met with curses and abuse.  The Maori bitterly complain of such treatment, received upon their own land.  The perpetrators are thought, however, to not be actual miners, but the loafers who follow the miners.

The pig stealing case has occupied the whole day and postpones again the anxiously awaited  Maori meeting regarding the opening of more land for prospecting.

NZH 16 August 1867

Friday 16 August
The Enterprise arrives in Auckland bringing John White of the Shotover and more samples from the Kuranui Reef. There is between 8lb and 9lb of the quartz, nearly 6lb of which is left on exhibit at the NZ Herald office. It is even richer in gold than the 2lbs smelted by Mr Beck from the same reef on Wednesday. The news is received with intense satisfaction.

The Shotover has been visited by nearly every miner on the ground over the last few days and the party are generous with letting the men take away samples. Their land has to be cleared of heavy bush and timber, work which has been delayed by the weather. In order to tunnel into the body of stone, they decide to divert the stream from its present course. 

The Maori meeting is finally held at Shortland - representatives from the Ngatitematera, Ngatiwhanaunga, Ngatimaru and Ngatinanuau tribes are  present.  The first two named tribes are unanimous in permitting their land to be worked for gold.  The others are divided. 

Te Moananui opens the runanga in a very forcible style stating the advantages the Maori would derive from the presence of the European’s amongst them.  Riwai rebutts – gesticulating and urging the wrongs which would ensue on the introduction of the pakeha.  

 Mr Mackay rises and speaks to Riwai. After some sparring between them, Riwai gives in to Mr Mackay. The subject of the discussion does not refer directly to the Waiotahi Creek, but to the Thames district in general.  Karauria Whakairi speaks next to the effect that he is willing to receive Europeans on the Wai-whakak-urunga, a river draining about 40 miles of country, extending nearly over to the East Coast.  Later in the day, Hikutaia is acceded.  This stream enters the Thames River about 20 miles distant from Kauaeranga.  In one day’s discussion with the Maoris Mr MacKay acquires much more than was expected.  The meeting is to resume next week.

Mr Stevenson, from  Riverhead, has been at the Thames for a few days, taking stock of the prospects of the goldfield.  He has been deputed by the gum diggers to report the actual state of the field.  His experience of other goldfields is extensive, but the peculiar formations at the Thames are a puzzle to him.

A cattle dealer is anxious to introduce some milch cows on the diggings. Butchers or dairymen are advised to consult Commissioner Mackay before doing so.  The Maori are not likely to allow their land to be depasturisied without receiving compensation.  Most of the grass land at the Thames is over-run with a weed which is obnoxious.  

Storekeepers are laying in stores at Shortland and miner’s are purchasing at Auckland prices.

During the last week an addition of about 60 men has been made to the population, which now numbers close to 300.

Enterprise for the Thames general cargo and 20 passengers

Severn for the Thames cargo and passengers

Alabama for the Thames stores and passengers

Fly for the Thames 1 pkg blacksmiths tools, 1 forge, 11 passengers

Diamond for the Thames 1 ¼ cask brandy, 1 bale, 4 cwt coal, 3 passengers

Ariel for the Thames sundry goods and 15 passengers

The farce-like Thames Goldfield

Saturday 17 August
‘Reef Fever’ has infected the Thames, the Kuranui Reef being the great attraction, but until the proper appliances to work them are brought from Auckland nothing much can be done.  Several men have traveled to Auckland, many of them returning with quartz reefing tools.  

The unusually wet and tempestuous weather that has been experienced since the opening of the gold field has put systematic prospecting out of the question.  Those who have seen the Karaka goldfield and are familiar with mining in California are of the opinion that a very similar system of mining must be adopted here.

At Auckland hundreds of people visit the NZ Herald office to inspect the half dozen pounds of quartz brought up from the Kuranui Reef by John White of the Shotover.  The goldfields are the only topic of conversation.

Oliver and Yorkey, from the West Coast have had enough. They have been very much amused at the farce-like Thames goldfield. In Auckland shop windows they have seen all kinds of tools chalked upon as being wanted at the diggings. Upon tin dishes could be seen written ‘3dwt to the dish,’ and upon shovels the same. There was a 'Notice to diggers, a first-class cradle for 30s, and a lesson how to use it.'  In a jeweler’s window they saw a piece of the Shotover quartz exhibited in a glass tumbler, covered with water to make it shine. They don’t know if it is gold, silver, or mundic, but a small portion was assayed and suggests that it is about 15 carat gold. Above the glass that contains the specimen is a card marked ‘285 ounces to the ton’ and ‘Gold bought here.’ They estimate there are about 300 men on the ground, with businessmen aplenty - about ten to one digger. When the steamer arrives in Auckland it brings 18 passengers from the diggings including two diggers from the Blue Spur, near Hokitika. Yorkey knows them well, and they assure Oliver and Yorkey there has never been an ounce of gold found on the Thames goldfield.

Another disgruntled West Coast miner is T Foxcroft from Greymouth.  What little prospects have been got are not of an alluvial character at all, but a light reefy nature. The ground proclaimed a goldfield is only about two miles long, and then it is another two miles to the source of the creek which is the boundary line, beyond which no one is allowed to prospect under a penalty of £5 or £10. When he and his party attempted to prospect in the forbidden Waiotahi creek about 150 Maori came down and ordered them off.  

NZH 17 August 1867

Sunday 18 August
At daybreak the steam whistle of the Enterprise shrills as she enters the river bringing with her the Deputy Superintendent Dr Pollen and a good number of visitors.  The passengers are landed without delay, Dr Pollen proceeds with Chief Taipari to the whare of Mr Mackay, the other passengers distribute themselves amongst their friends. 

 After breakfast  a general movement is made for Kuranui Reef where the Shotover party receive the visitors and hand out sample.   There is speculation as to what the visitors think – to those unacquainted with gold mining there is a general feeling of disappointment on first visiting a goldfield.  The newcomer thinks that he should find gold at once; but when he finds that the work is hard and continuous he thinks twice before approving of it – and a great many think more than twice before going to work.  The visitors today are satisfied but wet weather, living under canvas and walking over ranges is a very different thing to looking at one’s bank account after the gold has been made. 

The Enterprise is to be regularly run on the Auckland - Thames line.   Her light draught of water renders her the best on the coast for this trade.

Captain Burgess, the postmaster and chief pilot are buoying the entrance and channel of the Kauaeranga River. Three buoys have been fixed and Dr Pollen authorises the putting down of larger stakes than those put down by Mr Mackay.  The channel is now practicable for all vessels drawing up to nine feet at any time of flood tide, day or night.  Shortland Town is now a port of entry and Mr Wallace is appointed tide waiter for this port.  All bonded goods not cleared for this place will be seized.  Persons are not allowed to land any goods at Point Tararu.

The sluice boxes on the flat area are of course silent, it being Sunday.

Monday 19 August 
1am  Several men leave Shortland in the early hours for a new reef in which has been discovered.  The highly auriferous reef has been found by Lawrence (Laurence) Murphy, an old quartz miner from Coromandel, who is regarded as knowing what he is about.   The reef is on his claim on the Hape.  The reef is nothing like the Shotover, the quartz being of a more solid character with gold visible in it.  

The Kuranui stone, 5 ½ lb in weight, is handed over today to Mr Beck, jeweller, of Queen Street.  It is pounded up and the gold extracted by means of quicksilver.  The result is a bar of gold weighing 3 oz.  He exhibits it in his window. The yield is something astounding. These pieces were not picked, but taken from the leader just as they came.   Mr Beck is widely praised – the quantity crushed was no slight undertaking - the work of amalgamation being performed in an ordinary pestle and mortar.  

There is something of a rush from Auckland to the Thames – a large number of people go down to the goldfields today.

Cornstalk, Blue Bell, Sydney and Harvest Home for the Thames.

Severn for the Thames with stores and 35 passengers.

Avon for the Thames with stores and 20 passengers

Enterprise for the Thames with stores and 60 passengers

Ann for the Thames with sundries and 18 passengers

Bessy for the Thames with 4,000ft timber, 4,000 bricks, 20 bags lime, 1 baking stove, 10 passengers.

At the British claim, on the flat at the mouth of the Karaka, the men have sunk a shaft to a depth of 32 feet and are contending with very heavy boulders.  The men are determined to bottom the shaft and send up to Auckland a sample that they hope will convince the people of Auckland that they are not being overly optimistic.

Walter Deans of the British claim writes to Mr Sceats of the British Hotel  in Auckland -– “Dear Sceats – we feel extremely obliged to you for sending us the tent.  Fletcher and Sutton are in town, but coming back tomorrow.  Have gone to obtain proper tools for sluicing.  We have got our sluice boxes in only yesterday.  We are only 32ft deep.  I will send you some specimens as soon as we begin to sluice.  At present the weather is so bad that nothing can be done.  As soon as the hole is bailed out the surface water fills it up again; that is the reason no gold can be got, as no person can work,  The Auckland public don’t take this into consideration but expect to get it wet or dry.  I will write and let you know as soon as we get bottom, and if right, you shall have a bottle of champagne at my expense. – Walter Deans.”

NZH 20 August 1867

                           Riwai fights to the last

Tuesday 20 August
The Maori meeting  resumes and it is evident to all that the Ngatimaru have decided to give  way to the Commissioner.  Riwai, though, fights to the last urging the Upper Thames Maori  to retain their hereditary rights to the soil.  Traditional songs are chanted, in memory of old times, and all the lore of tribal prestige is brought to bear on the question of keeping the land from the advance of the Europeans.  As a last effort Riwai speaks to the effect of having Kauaeranga made the southern boundary arguing that if the European went further up the Thames, the Hauhaus would stop them and blood might be shed.  Mr Mackay rises and addresses Riwai individually stating that the protection from the Europeans from the Hauhaus has been guaranteed as far as the Hikutaia River by Karaitiana.  Should the pakeha go beyond the line there was a law which Commissioner Mackay could enforce.  

Commissioner MacKay proposes that five representatives from the different tribes should meet with him when he returns from Auckland, to settle the boundary.  Any Maori holding a small section of land who are adverse to Europeans going on it for gold will be protected, also cultivation areas will be guaranteed to the Maori.

A great rush to Murphy’s claim has left Shortland Town almost deserted.  The ground is pegged out left and right. Reports are that it is richer and more extensive than the Shotover. There can be no obstruction to work as it is situated on Taipari’s land and close to the Hape Creek.

There is nothing being done on the Kuranui beyond clearing the bush.

6.30pm Among the passengers arriving in Auckland on the Enterprise are Mr Mackay whose official duties have called him back, and Mr Mulligan who has come to town to purchase timber for the erection of a hotel at Shortland Town.  Also arriving is an irritable William Hunt who intends making a statement to the Daily Southern Cross regarding the discovery of the Shotover.   A recent report in the NZ Herald stated that John White led the party up the creek and discovered the reef.  He did not, harrumphs Mr Hunt, John White was in bed at the time, sick.* Hunt acknowledges Clarkson found the first payable prospect in the bottom of the creek, but puts himself in charge of the pick, which on the second drive into the reef, brought out gold.  “This, we are assured, is the truth regarding the discovery of the Kuranui reef, and from our knowledge of Mr Hunt; we do not question his statement in the least,” the Daily Southern Cross decides.  Others are not so sure.  William Hunt has a reputation for deception.

*John White may have had injured arm but doesn’t seem to have been bedridden!

Papers Past

© Meghan Hawkes / First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017

Please credit Meghan Hawkes/ First year on the Thames Goldfield 2017 when re-using information from this blog.